Comes after a voice in which the voice, ears, eyes or mind is used.
Uses the accusative infinitive construction.
The tense of the infinitive is determined by the tense originally spoken.
Words of commanding and forbidding.
Uses the construction ut or ne plus present subjunctive or imperfect subjunctive according to the sequence of tenses.
There are two exceptions, iubeo and veto, which are instead followed by an accusative infinitive construction.
Iubeo cannot be followed by "non". Veto or impero ne must be used instead.
A verb in which the voice, eyes, ears or mind is used, plus a question word and the appropriate subjunctive.
To express purpose use ut or ne plus the correct subjunctive.
The relative pronoun can also be used with the subjunctive, as can the supine, to express purpose.
The future participle and the gerund and gerundive can also be used to express purpose.
Result is expressed by ut or ut non plus the subjunctive suggested by the sequence of tenses.
It is quite frequently signposted by words meaning "so great", "so much", etc.
In result clauses "se" and "suus" refer to the subject of the ut bit of the clause, not the main clause like all other constructions.
The relative pronoun can be used in result clauses.
Where English uses an infinitive after a verb of fearing, so does the Latin. When "that" is implied in translation, then Latin uses ne plus subjunctive.
In english they are mostly weather verbs, but in Latin they are:
If a verb is used transitively it can be put in the passive and the object turned into the subject.
Verbs of motion can be effectively rendered in the impersonal passive.
Conditional clauses are introduced by if, unless, if ... not, whether ... or.
They consist of a main clause and a conditional clause, the latter of which usually come first.
The indicative is used in conditionals that involve real certainties.
English has concealed futures, using what looks like a present, eg "come" when, it means future. Latin uses the future or future perfect.
Identifiable in english by use of word "would" in the main clause or apodosis. In latin the subjunctive is used in both clauses. The present subjunctive refers to the future, the imperfect to present, and the pluperfect to past.
Introduced by the following words:
When the verb in the cum clause is in a primary tense, it is in the indicative. When the verb in the cum clause is in historic tense, it is in the subjunctive, either imperfect or pluperfect. If a cum clause uses the idea of time, with no mention of cause and effect, the historic indicative can be used.
"inverted cum" clause, used when the idea usually to be expressed in a cum clause is the more important one, so instead the main clause is turned into a cum clause.
While has several meanings in English:
"in the course of the time that..." - uses the present indicative even in indirect statement.
"exactly as long as..."
"all the time that..."
uses quod, quia or quoniam. The mood of the verb indicates the translation.
Clauses beginning with "although", "though", "even though" or "even if" are known as concessive clauses. They can deal either with facts or with possibilities.
The factual concessive clauses are introduced by quamquam, etsi, tametsi, etiamsi, etiam se, with the verb in the indicative.
The concessive clauses dealing with possibilities start with quamvis, etsi, etiamsi, etiam si and the verb is in the subjunctive.
"etsi", etc are all compounds of si meaning "even if". Therefore they follow the rules of the conditional clause.
"as if" words:
perinde ac se, tamquam si, quasi, velut, sicut, velut si, tamquam, ut si.
After "doubt" "deny" "hinder" and "prevent", Latin often uses quin plus the subjunctive after a negated verb of the above type.
Quin means literally "by which not" and "but that".
"aegre" and "vix" can be used as a milder substitute for a negative verb.
Quominus is used with much the same meaning as quin after verbs of hindering and preventing whether negated or not. Means literally "by which the less".
prohibeo can be followed simply by the infinitve.